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ÖTÜCÜ KUŞLAR (Passeriformes)

Ötücü kuşlar (Latince: Passeriformes), kuşlar(Aves) sınıfından özel ses yapılarına sahip çok sayıda kuş türünü içeren takım, ayrıca tüneyici kuşlar takımı olarak da bilinir.

Hemen hemen bütün kuş türlerinin yarısını oluşturan kuş takımının adıdır. Çıkarttıkları sesler, soluk borusu dibinde bulunan bir organ olan " gırtlağı"ndaki syrinx denilen bazı zarların titreşmesinin sonucudur; seslerin şiddeti ilgili kaslar tarafından kontrol edilir.

Ayakları kendilerine özgüdür: Tümü aynı yerden eklemlendirilmiş dört parmaklıdır. Birinci parmak sadece arkaya kıvrılır, öne döndürülemez. Ayağın biçimi, çok küçük dalları, bir yaprağın ip biçimli damarını ya da telefon telini kavramaya uyarlanmıştır. Ayak parmaklarının bükücü kasları, kuşun tünediği yerden düşmesine olanak vermeyecek düzeyde gelişmiştir; bu kasların bazı hareketleri, tünemiş ötücü kuşların dengesini sağlarken, bazıları da parmakların tutunma yerini kavramasını kendiliğinden sağlar. Böylece; nar bülbülü (ya da
kızılgerdan) veya sakagibi güçsüz, hafif kuşlar bile, şiddetli rüzgarın altında rahatça tüneyerek uyuyabilirler.

Bilimsel Sınıflandırma:

Alem: Animalia (Hayvanlar)

Şube: Chordata (Kordalılar)

Sınıf: Aves (Kuşlar)

Takım: Passeriformes (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alt Takımlar:
 
     1. Acanthisitti    
      2. Tyranni – Yalancı Ötücüler
      3. Pa

Alt takım: Tyranni (Yalancı ötücüler)

Alt takım: Passeri (Öz ötücüler) [değiştir]


Passeri – Öz Ötücüler

Description

The order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni (suboscines), Passeri (oscines), and the basal Acanthisitti. Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a wide range of songs and other vocalizations (though some of them, such as the crows, do not sound musical to human beings); some such as the lyrebird are accomplished imitators. The Acanthisittids or New Zealand wrens are tiny birds restricted to New Zealand, at least in modern times; they were long placed in Passeri; their taxonomic position is uncertain, though they seem to be a distinct and very ancient group.

Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders. The heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the Thick-billed Raven and the larger races of Common Raven, each exceeding 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and 70 cm (28 in). The Superb Lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to very long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall.[verification needed] The smallest passerine is the Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, at 6.5 cm (2.6 in) and 4.2 g (0.15 oz).

Pterylosis or the feather tracts in a typical passerine

The foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backwards, called anisodactyl arrangement. This arrangement enables the passerine birds to perch upon vertical surfaces, such as trees and cliffs. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas the second and third toes are united at their basal third. The hind toe joins the leg at the same level as the front toes. In other orders of birds the toe arrangement is different. The leg muscle of passerine birds contains a special adaption for perching. It will automatically tighten and become stiff if the bird starts to lose hold of the branch on which it is perching. This enables passerines to sleep while perching without falling off. This is especially useful for passerine birds that develop nocturnal lifestyles.[2]

Most passerine birds develop twelve tail feathers, though the Superb Lyrebird has sixteen.[citation needed] Certain species of passerines have stiff tail feathers, which help the birds balance themselves when perching upon vertical surfaces.

The chicks of passerines are altricial: blind, featherless, and helpless when hatched from their eggs. This requires that the chicks receive a lot of parental care. Most passerines lay coloured eggs, in contrast with non-passerines, most of whose eggs are white except in some ground-nesting groups such as Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, and some parasitic cuckoos, which match the passerine host's egg.

Clutches vary considerably in size: some larger passerines of Australia such as lyrebirds and scrub-robins lay only a single egg, most smaller passerines in warmer climates lay between two and five, whilst in the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere hole-nesting species like tits can lay up to a dozen and other species around five or six.

The order of Passeriformes, commonly called passerines (PASS-ur-eenz), are the largest and most unique family of birds. A few of the many birds in the passerine order are crows, finches, flycatchers, nightingales, swallows, tanagers, vireos, shrikes, wrens, and warblers. They are sometimes called "perching birds" and (less accurately) "song birds." These perching birds include some of the most colorful and mysterious of all birds in the world, such as birds of paradise from New Guinea and the bright orange cock-of-the-rock from tropical South America. They are generally small to medium in size (except for the crows, jays, and lyrebirds) with large wings relative to their body size. Two interesting physical features of the passerines are their distinctive syrinx (SIHR-ingks; or vocal organ) that allows them through complicated muscles to have a wide range of songs and calls, and their very specialized feet and legs that allow them to grip and move in very unique ways.

Passerines have three toes that point forward and one toe that points backward. The first toe, called the hallux (HAL-lux), is often called the hind toe because it always points backward and is never reversible. This arrangement allows them to perch on many different slender structures such as tree branches, grasses, telephone and fence wires, feeders, or anything that has some type of narrow place to perch. Their vocal organ allows the birds to produce a large range of vocalizations (although some species can only grunt and hiss while others produce very complex and melodic sounds that are called songs).

Bills on passerines vary greatly in size and shape due to the type of diet of each species. The types of bills range from tiny, needle-like bills of insect-easting warblers and vireos, to the generally huge, vise-like bills of finches, designed to crack the hard shells of seeds.

Passerines weigh between about 0.18 ounces (5 grams) in kinglets (also very small in weight are the bushtits and pygmy tits) to about 3.1 pounds (1.4 kilograms) in ravens and about 3.7 pounds (1.7 kilograms) in Australian lyrebirds and ravens.

Order : Passeriformlar : 121 familya (6261 tür)

Sınıflama : Alfabetik Systematics

Familya (Latince)

Tür Sayısı

Familya (English)

Acanthisittidae

3

New Zealand Wrens

Acanthizidae

64

Australasian Warblers

Acrocephalidae

57

Reed-Warblers

Aegithalidae

13

Bushtits

Aegithinidae

4

Ioras

Alaudidae

98

Larks

Artamidae

11

Woodswallows

Atrichornithidae

2

Scrub-birds

Bernieridae

11

Malagasy Warblers

Bombycillidae

3

Waxwings

Buphagidae

2

Oxpeckers

Calcariidae

6

Longspurs

Callaeidae

4

Wattlebirds

Campephagidae

92

Cuckoo-shrikes

Cardinalidae

45

Cardinals

Certhiidae

10

Creepers

Cettiidae

32

Cettia bush warblers and allies

Chaetopidae

2

Rockjumpers

Chloropseidae

11

Leafbirds

Cinclidae

5

Dippers

Cisticolidae

159

Cisticolas and apalises

Climacteridae

7

Australasian Treecreepers

Cnemophilidae

3

Satinbirds

Coerebidae

1

Bananaquit

Conopophagidae

11

Gnateaters

Corcoracidae

2

Australian Mudnesters

Corvidae

130

Crows, jays and nutcrackers

Cotingidae

64

Cotingas

Cracticidae

12

Butchebirds

Dasyornithidae

3

Bristlebirds

Dicaeidae

48

Flowerpeckers

Dicruridae

26

Drongos

Donacobiidae

1

Donacobius

Dulidae

1

Palmchat

Emberizidae

179

Buntings and sparrows

Estrildidae

143

Waxbills

Eupetidae

1

Rail-babbler

Eurylaimidae

20

Broadbills

Formicariidae

12

Anthrushes

Fringillidae

207

Finches

Furnariidae

307

Ovenbirds

Grallariidae

51

Antpittas

Hirundinidae

88

Swallows and martins

Hyliotidae

4

Hyliotas

Hylocitreidae

1

Hylocitrea

Hypocoliidae

1

Hypocolius

Icteridae

108

Orioles and blackbirds

Incertae Sedis

22

Philabura, Calyptura

Irenidae

2

Fairy-bluebirds

Laniidae

33

Shrikes

Leiothrichidae

133

Laughingthrushes

Locustellidae

56

Grassbirds and Allies

Machaerirhynchidae

2

Boatbills

Macrosphenidae

18

Crombecs, African Warblers

Malaconotidae

50

Bushshrikes

Maluridae

29

Fairywrens

Melanocharitidae

10

Berrypeckers and longbills

Melanopareiidae

4

Crescentchests

Meliphagidae

183

Honeyeaters

Menuridae

2

Lyrebirds

Mimidae

34

Mockingbirds

Mohoidae

2

Oos

Monarchidae

94

Monarch Flycatchers

Motacillidae

68

Pipits and wagtails

Muscicapidae

297

Chats and flycatchers

Nectariniidae

139

Sunbirds

Neosittidae

3

Sittellas

Nicatoridae

3

Nicators

Notiomystidae

1

Stitchbird

Oriolidae

33

Orioles and figbirds

Orthonychidae

3

Logrunners

Oxyruncidae

Pachycephalidae

58

Whistlers and allies

Panuridae

1

Reedling

Paradisaeidae

41

Birds-of-paradise

Paramythiidae

2

Painted Berrypeckers

Pardalotidae

4

Pardalotes

Paridae

59

Tits and chickadees

Parulidae

116

New World Warblers

Passeridae

49

Sparrows and snowfinches

Pellorneidae

71

Fulvettas, Ground Babblers

Petroicidae

46

Australasian Robins

Peucedramidae

1

Olive Warbler

Phylloscopidae

77

Leaf-Warblers

Picathartidae

2

Rockfowl

Pipridae

52

Manakins

Pittidae

33

Pittas

Pityriaseidae

1

Bristlehead

Platysteiridae

32

Wattle-eyes and batises

Ploceidae

109

Weavers and widowbirds

Pnoepygidae

4

Wren-babblers

Polioptilidae

17

Gnatcatchers

Pomatostomidae

5

Pseudo-babblers

Prionopidae

8

Helmetshrikes and woodshrikes

Promeropidae

5

Sugarbirds

Prunellidae

13

Accentors

Psophodidae

14

Whipbirds and wedgebills

Ptilogonatidae

4

Silky-flycatchers

Ptilonorhynchidae

20

Bowerbirds

Pycnonotidae

151

Bulbuls

Regulidae

6

Kinglets

Remizidae

12

Penduline-Tits

Rhabdornithidae

Rhabdornis

Rhinocryptidae

56

Tapaculos

Rhipiduridae

45

Fantails

Sittidae

28

Nuthatches

Stenostiridae

9

Fairy Flycatchers

Sturnidae

118

Starlings

Sylviidae

70

Warblers

Tephrodornithidae

8

Woodshrikes and allies

Thamnophilidae

224

Antbirds

Thraupidae

388

Tanagers

Tichodromidae

1

Wallcreeper

Timaliidae

56

Babblers

Tityridae

41

Tityras and becards

Troglodytidae

83

Wrens

Turdidae

184

Thrushes

Tyrannidae

420

Tyrant Flycatchers

Urocynchramidae

1

Przevalski's Finch

Vangidae

21

Vangas

Viduidae

20

Indigobirds and whydhas

Vireonidae

63

Vireos and shrike-babblers

Zosteropidae

126

White-eyes

Alt takım: Tyranni (Yalancı ötücüler)

Alt takım: Passeri (Öz ötücüler)

 

İSPİNOZGİLLER (Fringillidae)
 
İspinozgiller (Fringillidae), ötücü kuşlar (Passeriformes) takımından 10-20 cm uzunluğunda, tohum yemeye uyarlanmış konik gagalı, yuvarlak kanatlı kuşları içeren kuş familyası. Tohumların dışında çeşitli bitkisel maddelerle ve ara sıra böceklerle beslenir, yeryüzünün hemen her yerindeki ormanlık ve çalılık alanlarda sürüler halinde yaşarlar.
 

Dağ İspinozu

İspinoz

Mavi İspinoz

Alp İsketesi

Korsika İsketesi

Yabani Kanarya

Küçük İskete

Suriye İsketesi

Kara İskete

Huş İsketesi

Kutup İsketesi

Sarı Gagalı Ketenkuşu

Ketenkuşu

Kara Başlı İskete

Saka

Florya

Şakrak Kuşu

Asor Şakrağı

Sarı Karınlı Kocabaş

Kocabaş

Boz Alamecek

Doğu Alameceği

Küçük Alamecek

Alamecek

Çütre

Büyük Çütre

Sina Çütresi

Gül Çütresi

Uzun Kuyruklu Çütre

Tayga Çütresi

Ak Kanatlı Çaprazgaga

Çaprazgaga

Tarla Çintesi

Gri Başlı Çinte

Kaya Çintesi

Ak Başlı Çinte

Sarı Çinte

Bahçe Çintesi

Söğüt Çintesi

Kızıl Başlı Çinte

Kara Başlı Çinte

Kirazkuşu

Kızıl Kirazkuşu

Doğu Kirazkuşu

Boz Çinte

Bataklık Çintesi

Küçük Çinte

Ak Başlı Çinte

Alaca Çinte

Mahmuzlu Çinte

Küçük Bataklık Çintesi

Kestane Renkli Çinte

Sarı Kaşlı Çinte

Kara Yüzlü Çinte

.

Origin and evolution

The evolutionary history of the passerine families and the relationships among them remained rather mysterious until the late 20th century. In many cases, passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities which, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the "wrens" of the northern hemisphere, those of Australia, and those of New Zealand look very similar and behave in similar ways, and yet belong to three far-flung branches of the passerine family tree; they are as unrelated as it is possible to be while remaining Passeriformes.[3]

Much research remains to be done, but advances in molecular biology and improved paleobiogeographical data are gradually revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution that reconciles molecular affinities, the constraints of morphology and the specifics of the fossil record.[4] It is now thought that the first passerines evolved in Gondwana at some time in the Paleogene, maybe around the Late Paleocene some 60–55 mya.[5] The initial split was between the Tyranni, the songbirds, the Eurylaimides and the New Zealand "wrens", which must have diverged during a short period of time (some million years at most). The Passeriformes apparently evolved out of a fairly close-knit clade of "near passerines" which contains such birds as the Piciformes and Coraciiformes.[6]

A little later, a great radiation of forms took place out of Australia-New Guinea: the Passeri or songbirds. A major branch of the Passeri, "Parvorder Passerida", emerged either as the sister group to the basal lineages and corvoids ("Parvorder Corvida"), or more likely as a subgroup of it, and expanded deep into Eurasia and Africa, where there was a further explosive radiation of new lineages. This eventually led to three major passeridan lineages comprising about 4,000 species, which in addition to the corvoidan clade and numerous minor lineages make up songbird diversity today. There has been extensive biogeographical mixing, with northern forms returning to the south, southern forms moving north, and so on.

[edit] Fossil record

[edit] Earliest passerines

Perching bird osteology, especially of the limb bones, is rather diagnostic.[7] However, the early fossil record is poor because the first Passeriformes were apparently on the small side of the present size range, and their delicate bones did not preserve well. QM specimens F20688 (carpometacarpus) and F24685 (tibiotarsus) from Murgon, Queensland are fossil bone fragments clearly recognizable as passeriform; they represent two species of approximately 10 and 20 cm in overall length and prove that some 55 mya, barely into the Early Eocene, early perching birds were recognizably distinct.[8]

Male Superb Lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae). This very primitive songbird shows strong sexual dimorphism, with a peculiarly apomorphic display plumage in males.

A quite similar group, the Zygodactylidae (named for their zygodactylous approach to perching) independently arose at much the same time – and possibly from closely related ancestors – in the landmasses bordering the North Atlantic, which at that time was only some two-thirds of its present width.

Until the discovery of the Australian fossils Palaeospiza bella from the Priabonian Florissant Fossil Beds (Late Eocene, around 35 mya) was the oldest known passeriform. However, it is now considered a non-passeriform near passerine.

From the Bathans Formation at the Manuherikia River in Otago, New Zealand, MNZ S42815 (a distal right tarsometatarsus of a Tui-sized bird) and several bones of at least one species of Saddleback-sized bird have recently been described. These date from the Early to Middle Miocene (Awamoan to Lillburnian, 19-16 mya).[9]

Modern knowledge about the living passerines' interrelationships (see the list of families below) suggests that the last common ancestor of all living Passeriformes was a small forest bird, probably with a stubby tail[10] and an overall drab coloration, but possibly with marked sexual dimorphism. The latter trait seems to have been lost and re-evolved multiple times in songbird evolution alone, judging from its distribution among the extant lineages. Sexual dichromatism is very rare among the basal lineages of Passerida, and probably their plesiomorphic condition. But among the youngest passerid clade, the Passeroidea, extremely colorful males and drab females are common, if not the rule. On the other hand, among the basalmost Passeri there are a considerable number of strongly dimorphic lineages too, such as the very ancient Menuridae as well as many Meliphagoidea and Corvoidea. Sexual dimorphism is also not uncommon in the Acanthisittidae and prominent in some suboscines such as the Pipridae and Cotingidae.

[edit] Early European passerines

In Europe, perching birds are not too uncommon in the fossil record from the Oligocene onwards, but most are too fragmentary for a more definite placement:

  • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
  • Jamna (Early Oligocene of Jamna Dolna, Poland)
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene of Luberon, France) – suboscine or basal[11]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Oligocene of France) – several suboscine and oscine taxa[12]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Middle Miocene of France and Germany) – basal?[13]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary) – at least 2 taxa, possibly 3; at least one probably Oscines[14]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Felsõtárkány, Hungary) – oscine?[15]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Polgárdi, Hungary) – Sylvioidea (Sylviidae? Cettiidae?)[16]

Wieslochia was possibly not a member of any extant suborder. That not only the Passeri expanded much beyond their region of origin is proven by an undetermined broadbill (Eurylaimidae) from the Early Miocene (roughly 20 mya) of Wintershof, Germany, and the indeterminate Late Oligocene suboscine from France listed above. Even very basal Passeriformes might have been common in Europe until the Middle Miocene, some 12 mya.[17] Extant Passeri superfamilies were quite distinct by that time and are known since about 12–13 mya when modern genera were present in the corvoidean and basal songbirds. The modern diversity of Passerida genera is known mostly from the Late Miocene onwards and into the Pliocene (about 10–2 mya). Pleistocene and early Holocene lagerstätten (<1.8 mya) yield numerous extant species, and many yield almost nothing but extant species or their chronospecies and paleosubspecies.

[edit] American fossils

In the Americas, the fossil record is more scant before the Pleistocene, from which several still-existing suboscine families are documented. Apart from the indeterminable MACN-SC-1411 (Pinturas Early/Middle Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina),[18] an extinct lineage of perching birds has been described from the Late Miocene of California, USA: the Palaeoscinidae with the single genus Paleoscinis. "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene of Florida) probably belongs to an extant family, most likely passeroidean.

See also Late Quaternary prehistoric birds.

 

Systematics and Taxonomy

Initially,[citation needed] the Corvida and Passerida were classified as "parvorders" in the suborder Passeri; in accord with the usual taxonomic practice, they would probably be ranked as infraorders. As originally envisioned in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, they contained, respectively, the large superfamilies Corvoidea and Meliphagoidea as well as minor lineages, and the superfamilies Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea.

The peculiar Bearded Reedling, Panurus biarmicus, may be the most enigmatic passerine. No truly close relatives have been identified.

This arrangement has been found to be overly simplified by more recent research. Since the mid 2000s, literally dozens of studies are being published which try rather successfully to resolve the phylogeny of the passeriform radiation. For example, the Corvida in the traditional sense were a rather arbitrary assemblage of early and/or minor lineages of passeriform birds of Old World origin, generally from the region of Australia, New Zealand, and Wallacea. The Passeri on the other hand can be made monophyletic by moving some families about, but the "clean" three-superfamily-arrangement has turned out to be far more complex and it is uncertain whether future authors will stick to it.

Major "wastebin" families such as the Old World warblers and Old World babblers have turned out to be paraphyletic and are being rearranged. Several taxa turned out to represent highly distinct species-poor lineages and consequently new families had to be established, some of them – like the Stitchbird of New Zealand and the Eurasian Bearded Reedlingmonotypic with only one living species.[19] It seems likely that in the Passeri alone, a number of minor lineages will eventually be recognized as distinct superfamilies. For example, the kinglets constitute a single genus with less than 10 species today, but seem to have been among the first perching bird lineages to diverge as the group spread across Eurasia. No particularly close relatives of them have been found among comprehensive studies of the living Passeri, though it is suspected that they might be fairly close to some little-studied tropical Asian groups. Treatment of the nuthatches, wrens, and their closest relatives as a distinct superfamily Certhioidea is increasingly considered justified; the same might eventually apply to the tits and their closest relatives.

This process is still continuing. Therefore, the arrangement as presented here is subject to change. However, it should take precedence over unreferenced conflicting treatments in family, genus and species articles here; see the next section for default sources.

 

Taxonomic list of Passeriformes families

Female (left) and male Rifleman or tītitipounamu (Acanthisitta chloris), one of the 2 surviving species of suborder Acanthisitti.

This list is in taxonomic order, placing related species/groups next to each other. The Passerida subdivisions are updated as needed from the default sequence of the Handbook of the Birds of the World,[20] based on the most modern and comprehensive studies.[21]

[edit] Regarding arrangement of families

The families are sorted into a somewhat novel sequence unlike that in older works, where e.g. Corvidae are placed last. This is because so many reallocations have taken place since about 2005 that a definite taxonomy has not been established yet, although the phylogeny is by and large resolved. The present sequence is an attempt to preserve as much of the traditional sequence while giving priority to adequately addressing the phylogenetic relationships between the families.

 

 
 
 
 
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